Sunday, July 22, 2012

Schizophrenia, Lifespan Development

DSM-IV-TR classifies and explains schizophrenia and lifespan development disorders.  Each of the  categories focuses on a different part of the disorder to find applicable treatment.  The more advances found will benefit psychologists in an understanding of mental disorders and help find reasons for their cause. 
Schizophrenia is associated with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that linger for six months or longer and initiate life impairment (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  Schizophrenia begins slowly over a few months to a few years; however the symptoms are not noticeable right away (Mayo Clinic, 2010).  “Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia generally are divided into three categories — positive, negative and cognitive” (Mayo Clinic, 2010). Hansell and Damour state that schizophrenia is thought to have ties with abnormalities of the brain, 2008.    The brain abnormalities are in two different categories, the proximal (immediate) and distal (predisposing) (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  Problems found in the proximal area see a surplus of dopamine (D2)  as well as neurotransmission (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  In the distal section, most causes are relates to environment, genetics, and biological factors. “Treatment with medications and psychosocial therapy can help manage the condition” (Mayo Clinic, 2010) Reconstructing both cognitive behavioral rehabilitations and cognitive behavioral interventions are ways that someone suffering from a psychotic disorder is treats.  Operant conditioning, social skills training as well as milieu treatment are ways psychotic behaviors can be treated based on a biological view (Hansell & Damour, 2008).   Psychodynamic treatment help in preventing relapses, improve personal adjustment as well as maintaining ongoing treatment (Hansell & Damour, 2008). 
Lifespan Development Disorders
Disorders that deal with lifespan development were not intergraded into the DSM-IV-TR until the twentieth century.  DSM-IV-TR acknowledges five different types of classifications.  The categories include mental retardation, pervasive development disorders (PPD), attention deficit/disruptive behavior (ADD), learning disorders, and separation anxiety (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  It is complicated to diagnose children with disorders because they are evolving rather quickly.  One can relate it to the development of the child (Hansell & Damour, 2008). 
DSM-IV-TR label attention deficit/disruptive behavior as externalizing behaviors next to oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  Approximately one out of every 20 to 30 children have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this makes it the most diagnosed childhood disorder (Hansell & Damour, 2008).   ADHD is  passed down genetically, there are also prenatal factors that contribute to ADHD as well as neurological factors.  Treatment of attention deficit/disruptive disorder is stimulant medications, therapy, rules established for the child when there is punishment needed and the need for maintaining parent control (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  Attention deficit disorder can be outgrown as the child grows and learns techniques to remain focused in the world (West, 2012).
Learning disorders are misfiring’s in certain academic abilities when compared to others in that given age bracket, education level, and intellect (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  DSM-IV-TR differentiates between dyslexia (unable to learn words and understand words) and dysgraphia (expressing thoughts in writing) and dyscalculia (difficulty with math) as the three main learning disorders (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  Most are related to biological factors. They are enhanced by psychological factors.  Technology has allowed professionals to find abnormalities in the brain (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  The cognitive and behavioral aspects rely on how families and schools interact with each other and how to overcome a learning disorder (Hansell & Damour, 2008). 
Mental retardation is either biological or sociocultural.  Mental retardation mars the logical functioning and adaptive behaviors and is visible at birth (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  Often mild, moderate, severe, and profound mental retardation is related to biological backgrounds, these biological factors are prenatal and postnatal complications, genetic abnormalities, and metabolic deficiencies.  The socio-cultural causes are stemming from a lack of environmental stimulation or possibly insufficient nutrition (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  According to DSM-IV-TR three criteria need to be met to be diagnosed with mental retardation, but the most evident is a lower than norm IQ. There is no cure thus far for mental retardation, thus lasting the entire life of the child.
Pervasive developmental disorders are impairments in development and daily functioning (Hansell & Damour, 2008). The child who exhibits PDD does not develop communication and social abilities and seems not to obtain connections with others (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  Autism, childhood disintegrative disorder, Asperger’s and Rett’s disorder are forms of PDD. Autism is the most common it is unclear how a young child receives this disorder (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  Medications only help the symptoms in conjunction with behavioral and cognitive therapy seem to be the most helpful (Hansell & Damour, 2008). 
Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is caused from separation of the home or caregiver that causes anxiety in the child (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  Four percent of children suffer from this common anxiety disorder (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  Children express fears and clinginess, which could grow into agoraphobia.  It is stated that different genes are to be the cause of SAD, causing males to have his more than females but oddly, it is inherited by girls more than it is in boys (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  Psychosocial stressors bring on SAD as well as unconscious anger, especially after a traumatic event.  Most parents after a traumatic event tent to become overprotective, this gives way to feelings that separation is unsafe (Hansell & Damour, 2008).  When someone is seeking treatment to separation anxiety disorder many prefer counseling and no medication. 
The continual advances in technology will allow psychologist to understand schizophrenia and lifespan development disorders.  Each of these are better understood when biological, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional perceptions are considered.  The DSM-IV-TR defines each disorder and how to aid in treating its sufferers better. 

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